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在線閱讀 --哲學社會科學版 2020年6期《從精神醫學到存在哲學——論雅斯貝爾斯的《時代的精神處境》》
從精神醫學到存在哲學——論雅斯貝爾斯的《時代的精神處境》--[在線閱讀]
黃藿
臺灣中國文化大學 哲學系, 臺灣 臺北 11114
起止頁碼: 12--20頁
DOI: 10.13763/j.cnki.jhebnu.psse.2020.06.002
摘要
德國哲學家雅斯貝爾斯早期的著作《時代的精神處境》是一本值得重視的小書。雅斯貝爾斯從精神醫學的臨床醫師與研究者,轉任心理學教授,最后再轉任哲學教授,本書是他學術研究興趣轉向存在哲學的轉折點,在他學術生涯的轉型上具有關鍵性的價值與意義。他對早年精神醫學界以實證科學態度研究精神疾病的方法感到不滿,認為實證方法建立在笛卡兒心物二元論哲學觀點上,遏制了建立全人的統整性精神病理學的企圖。值得注意的是,本書成書于20世紀30年代初,正是德國第一次世界大戰戰敗之后,遭遇世界經濟大蕭條和納粹在德國崛起的年代,德國上下處于焦躁不安的境況之中。它可視為雅斯貝爾斯從精神醫學與存在哲學雙重觀點對當時德國社會集體的精神狀況所作的深入觀察、省思與病理診斷,具有社會心理學或群眾心理學的意義。該書解釋了存在哲學的意義,并對其內容與發展方向勾勒出輪廓。最后,他認為對未來會發生什么的關心,有助于對存在哲學的沉思預測和對超越的積極規劃。

From Psychiatry to Existential Philosophy-On Karl Jaspers' Die geistige Situation der Zeit
HWANG Hwo
Department of Philosophy, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan 11114, China
Abstract:
Die geistige Situation der Zeit, an early work of German philosopher Karl Jaspers, is a small book worthy of attention. Jaspers changed from a practitioner and a researcher in psychiatry in the beginning to a professor of psychology and then to a professor of philosophy. This book marks the turning point of his academic career to the existential philosophy (Existenzphilosophie), and has key value in the transformation of his academic career. He was dissatisfied with the method used by psychiatrists to study mental diseases with empirical scientific attitude in his early years, and thought that the empirical method was based on Cartesian dualism of mind and matter philosophy, which hindered the attempt to establish holistic psychopathology of the whole person. It is worth noting that this book was written in the early 1930s, just after Germany's defeat in World War I, in the era of the Great Depression of the World Economy and the rise of Nazis in power, and the whole society was filled with turbulence and anxiety. It can be regarded as Jaspers' extensive and in-depth observation and reflection and also as a psychopathological diagnosis of the German society at that time from the dual perspectives of psychiatry and philosophy, which has the significance of social psychology or mass psychology. This book explains the significance of existential philosophy and outlines its content and development direction. Finally, he thinks that caring about what will happen in the future is helpful for contemplative prediction of existential philosophy and active planning of transcendence.

收稿日期: 2020-06-15
基金項目:

參考文獻:
[1]Saner,H."Karl Jaspers" in Encyclopaedia Britannica[G].retrieved on 2020/5/1 from the website:https://www.britannica.com/biography/Karl-Jaspers
[2]黃藿.雅斯培[M].臺北:東大圖書公司,1992.
[3]Jablensky,A."Karl Jaspers:Psychiatrist,Philosopher,Humanist",in Schizophrenia Bulletin[J],Vol.39,No.2,2013.
[4]Jasper,K.Man in the Modern Age[M].New York:Doubleday & Co.,1957.
[5]Jasper,K.Die geistige Situation der Zeit[M].Berlin:Walter de Gruyter& Co.,1965.
[6]Jaspers,K.Philosophische Autobiographie[M].München:R.Piper & co.Verlag,1977.
[7]Jaspers,K.Einführung in die Philosophie-Zwölf Radiovorträge[M].München:R.Piper & Co.Verlag,1953.
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